Unit 6: Vocabulary

To pass this unit, please study the 20 vocabulary words below.
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AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
a severe immunological disorder caused by the retrovirus HIV
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AIDS is commonly spread through sexual contact or sharing a needle with an infected person.
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anemia
a pathological deficiency in the oxygen-carrying component of the blood
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Blood loss or iron deficiency are common causes of anemia.
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bacterium
any member of microorganisms typically a few micrometres in length and shaped like spheres, rods, or spirals
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Most hospitals have anti-bacterial gel for visitors to use to wash their hands.
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cancer
any type of malignant growth or tumor, caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division
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Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer.
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chlamydia
a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a bacterium which can damage a woman's reproductive organs
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John went to the doctor's to test for Chlamydia after his ex-girlfriend told him that she had the disease.
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condition
a disease, illness or injury
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This hospital treats all kinds of conditions.
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diabetes
any of several disorders characterized by increased urine production and insulin resistance
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You have to be very careful how much sugar you eat when you have diabetes.
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disorder
a disturbance in physical or mental health or functions
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When he was diagnosed with a mental disorder he was referred to a psychiatrist.
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epidemic
affecting many persons and spreading in an area in which a disease is not commonly prevalent
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The epidemic of typhoid was blamed on a polluted water source in the camp.
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heart disease
a common name for medical conditions affecting the cardiovascular system
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In order to avoid heart disease, it is important to eat a healthy diet and take regular exercise.
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incurable
not able to be fixed, remedied or corrected
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Although the disease is incurable, the symptoms can be treated to maintain a good quality of life.
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infectious
tending to spread from one person to another
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When you sneeze, it is important to cover your mouth as colds and flu are very infectious and other people can easily catch them.
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infertility
the state of not being able to reproduce (have children)
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When Mary learnt that she suffered from infertility, she was very upset as she had always wanted to have children.
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flu (influenza)
highly infectious and often epidemic viral disease characterized by fever
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Each year millions of people take time off work due to influenza in the winter months.
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meningitis
an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain or spinal cord, caused by infection
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At first the doctor didn't know what he had contracted, but after running several tests, they discovered it was viral meningitis.
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outbreak
a sudden occurrence of an illness
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Doctors have warned travelers of an outbreak of malaria in the area.
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polio
an acute viral disease affecting children and young adults often resulting in paralysis
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In the 1920's polio was one of the most common diseases, but today it is very rare.
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STD (sexually transmitted disease)
any disease contracted through genital contact
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There has been a rise in the number of sexually transmitted diseases because a lot of young people don't know the risk connected to sex.
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terminal
unable to be treated and resulting in death
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Hearing that the disease was terminal was a shock for John.
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virus
a small infectious agent that uses other cells to reproduce
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Viral diseases are often harder to treat than bacterial infections.
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